It may also be noted here th at not only Chinese system of medicine but the ancient Greek and the medieval Arabian medicine have also correlated the pulse to different organs of the body. It is com mon carotid artery; 7 There is a Nadi in the middle o f the hand on each side. He is said to have come down to the South from Him alayan region. It is also im portant to note th at during this very phase most of the Indian physicians as M anaka, Ibn-D han, Babal, Bajigar etc.
This version of Itsing strongly strengthens the idea that Indians of the time were not aware of the knowledge of diag nosis by pulse examination. Now, let us see what happened during the second phase of contact. The time bracket of A. During this period Turkish invaders settled down in India, and carried out their repeated compaigns against Hindu principalities, the annexa tion of the conqured territories to the expanding sultanate of Delhi, the forcible conversion of Hindus under the threat of the sword.
In so far as medical science is concerned, the Turks in the second phase of contact brought with them their own physicians and m ateria medica a part of which was originally imbibed from Indian medicine. The royal physicians Hakims who were brought to India attracted increasingly large number of pupils not only from India but also from various parts of persia where Greek thought reigned supreme.
Some of the rulers of the time allowed their physicians to trans late a few Indian medical works into Persian. One such work was Tibba-Ferozeshahi, published in India in A. It was dedicated to S ultan Ala-ud-din Khilji. M aulana Budruddin Damasci, the m aster physician occupied a high rank during the entire Ala period.
The physicians of the city always learned the medical books from him. God blessed him with such a skill in m edicine' that only by feeling the pulse of the patient, he could correctly diagnose the cause o f the disease with the cure for it and gave a favourable prognosis of th e case.
M any hospitals were established where regular training o f Greeko-Arabian medicine was given. In the second phase and the centuries th a t followed so as the practice of the Greeko-Arabian medicine by its Indian practitioners is concerned it is observed th at the diagnosis of the disease and the patient was made, alm ost exclusively by the examination of the pulse ooi wei ming dating and the testing of the urine.
Regarding pulse examination in Arabic literature, it is im portant to note th a t Arabic medical literature assigned to the teacher particualr responsibility in training the student accurately to read the pulse.
Part of their medical circular was devoted to the study of the music so that the physician might appreciate the subtleties of the various tones of the pulse beats.
He was an Arabian authority on the pulse who is ranked with Avicenna as one of the foremost Arabian physicians and he is also regarded as probably the greatest and m ost original of all Muslim physi Arabic Pulse-Lore 29 cians as well as one of the most prolific as an author. He lived during second half of the tenth century. He is famous for his alkitab al-Sinnah-al-Tibbiyah which is certainly one of the most, com plete and concise medical book irr the Arabic language.
The another great authority o f Arabic medical world was Avicenna who not only syste matized the U nani system of medicine but made m any original contributions and m ore so in the field of pulse examination. But these four hum ours in the case of ooi wei ming dating of the pulse have neither been to the pulse-signs and symptoms nor is the interpretation of the pulse-signs and symptoms made in terms o f impairm ent of the one or the other of or all of the four humours, so far as prognosis and diagno sis are concerned.
Instead, the tem peram ent or Mizaj and the vital force or Rooh, among others, are seen to form the basis of th e study of the pulse, in ease and disease. The description of pulse-lore in Arabian medicine is quali tative and an asset o f details regarding different signs and symptoms have been furnished. C hief points to be elicited during the examination of the pulse are : 1 length, 2 breadth, 3 height, 4 the needs o f the body, 5 hard, 6 soft, 7 irregular, 8 strength.
Some among the types o f the pulses described by Arabian medicine are : 1 G azelle pulse, 2 Vermicular pulse, 3 Ant-like pulse, 4 Serratic pulse, 5 D ecurtate pulse, 6 Spindle-shaped pulse, 7 Dicrotic pulse, fc Supernumerany pulse, 9 Cord-like pulse.
In addition to these A rabian medicine has observed differences in the pulse with age and sex, tem peram ent, seasons, place countriesfood and drinks, alcohol etc.
On the character o f the pulse exercise, baths, pregnancy, pain, swellings,'inflammations, and the factors enimical to the body have also been described. The description o f m ain features of the pulse which Avice nna 10 A. In this way the pulse varies in respect of its 1 size, i.
The pulse has thus nine simple and a large number of compound varieties. The nine simple varieties of the pulse are the long, short, and medium; the broad, narrow and medium.
The vari ous compound varieties of pulse are worked out from combi nations of the simple varieties. Some of these varieties have special names, others have none. Thus, a pulse which is large in length, breadth, and height is called a pulse of large volume and the one which is small, in these dimensions, is called the pulse of small volume. The average pulse between these two is known as the pulse of medium volume.
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Similarly, a pulse which is large in breadth and height is known as a bounding pulse a n d that-w hich is small in this respect is called a thin pulse. A pulse which is average between these two extremes is a medium pulse; 2 strength of the pulse beat as felt by the fingers. The strength of the pulse may be strong, feeble and medium; 3 Velocity of the pulse beat i.
The velo city of the pulse beat may be quick, sluggish or medium; 4 Quality o f the vessel wall. This may be soft, hard or medium; 5 Fullness or emptiness o f the artery.
The pulse may be full, collapsing or medium; 6 Temperature. The pulse may be hot, cold or moderate in tem perature; 7 Rate i.
The pulse may be rapid, slow or medium; 8 Consiste ncy or inconsistency ooi wei ming dating the various features; 9 Regu larity and 10 Rhythm. Rhythms of the pulse is time relation between two periods of movements and the two periods of rest. The pulse may thus be errhylhmic or dysrhythmic.
M arked devi ations of rhythms indicate gross derangement in the body. F or usual practice, regarding site of examination of the. He has given three possible reasons to be chosen this artery for the examination of the pulse.
Firstly, it is more accessible. Secondly, it can be exami ned without embarrassment to the patient, and thirdly, it is in direct continuation of the heart and quite close to it. Regarding the m ethod of examination he has said th at the forearm should be kept in the mid prone position because in thin and weak persons pronation increases the height and width of the pulse, but decreases the length, while supination increases the height and length but decreases the width.
It is also im portant that the pulse should be felt when the subject is neither angry, nor excessively happy or under stress of exercise and emotions.
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His stomach should be neither over loaded nor altogether empty. He should also not be out of breath. The subject should neither have given up any of his long standing habits nor should have adopted new ones.
In order to make a proper assessment o f the various chan ges it is im portant th a t the.
Now the account of pulse in Tantrik literature follows. The pulselore o f the early Tamil Siddhars is seen to have taken its origin from the Shaiva-Agama Tantrism. Of these Siddhars, Tirm ular, Agastyar and Bogar are recognised as to be the most earliest. Thus the pulse-lore is seen to be an outcome o f Yoga which deals among other things with the pulse nadi and the control of breath.
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The knowledge of the pulse became subsequently a part o f the medicine o f South Indian school o f Siddhars-also known as Ayurveda. The following are chronologically the more im portant Tamil Siddhars who authored works on alche my and pulse-lore; N andi, Agastiyar, Tirm ular, Shivavakyar, Yugimuni, Theryar etc. Tirm ular, datând ab 16 been counted as one among the earliest and great Siddhars. He is said to have come down to the South from Him alayan region.
He is believed to have been among the ear liest exponents o f Shaivism in Tamil N ad o f his life. Various dates fo r him have been assigned, ranging from, the first to the ninth century A. According to the another source, the period of Tirm ular ranges from the second century B. Regardless of the difference o f opinion about the period it would appear that he might have flourished a few centuries before the Christian era.
The number of Siddhacharyas grew to eighty-f our between the eight and tenth centuries.
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