But was eugenic sterilization necessary in Romania? To cover the costs of their maintenance, they should do forced labour. The foundation of Banu's eugenic philosophy lay in the suggestion that hygienic values and racial improvement were closely linked. For a broader regional perspective, see Marius Turda and Paul Weindling eds , Blood and homeland: eugenics and racial nationalism in central and southeast Europe, —, Budapest, Central European University Press, The Impact of the German Sterilization Law Both the Revista de Igienă Socială and the Buletin Eugenic şi Biopolitic published translations and discussions of the German law for the prevention of hereditarily diseased offspring Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses.

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On what type of decision is sterilization based: judicial, sanitary policy, voluntary? Is sterilization performed itinerantly [by mobile stations]? What methods are used? Are those sterilized kept under observation after their release?

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Do card indexes about sterilization exist? When was sterilization introduced, and how many individuals were sterilized by the end of ?

In addition to his support of the German sterilization law, Făcăoaru was similarly attracted to the model of national eugenics and biopolitics advocated by his mentor Iuliu Moldovan. Indeed, like many other eugenicists who worked with Moldovan at the Institute of Hygiene and Public Health in Cluj during the inter-war period, Făcăoaru, while not insensitive to racial arguments, refuted ideas of racial purity.

Opposition to Eugenic Sterilization Towards the end of the s, discussions of eugenic sterilization were gradually forced into the realm of public debate by the increased interest in this topic of non-medical professionals.

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It is, however, preferable, from all points of view, that degenerates should not be born, or, even better, not conceived. And, this is possible with the help of science: by sterilizing those who exhibit pathological characteristics or incurable diseases.

We could even say that vasectomy is the basis of the regeneration of the human species.

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Only a penal code based on eugenics would provide the state with the necessary instrument for social and biological reconstruction. Ultimately, Leonida minimized the importance of heredity, stating that mental and physical illnesses were likely to cause most immediate biological damage to the individual concerned rather than influence the genetic heritage of generations to come.

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This scepticism about eugenic sterilization was further articulated by a psychiatrist at the Central Hospital in Bucharest, Grigore Odobescu.

Among the most important causes of degeneration, he identified poor nutrition, a total lack of hygiene and rampant contagious diseases but not, significantly, hereditary diseases. Odobescu pursued the same arguments further in Politica eugenică Eugenic Policy. Rather than eugenic sterilization, Odobescu offered another solution to social decline, insisting that the physical and mental health of the Romanian peasantry could be the source of national rejuvenation.

In other words, Romania's rural and agrarian environment protected her from forms of urban degeneration experienced by the industrialized countries of Western Europe. In return, such sceptical attitudes were criticized by supporters of eugenic sterilization.

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Făcăoaru, for instance, deplored both Odobescu's lack of eugenic enthusiasm and Leonida's deficient knowledge of genetics and eugenics. The third section of the congress, devoted to heredity and eugenics, was presided over dating wwii casti the Dutch psychiatrist and eugenicist Gerrit Pieter Frets.

In our case, compulsory sterilization is the only means to prevent the continual increase of the feeble-minded, especially in isolated villages in the mountains. Voluntary sterilization proved inefficient in countries where it has been applied. Although all participants agreed that eugenic sterilization was essential to any national programme of biological improvement, the moderate view triumphed. Despite Stroescu's and Făcăoaru's escalating rhetoric, in there was still an intense debate on which form of eugenic sterilization was justifiable or desirable.

Admittedly, the outspoken opposition to eugenic sterilization proposed by Leonida and Odobescu was not shared by prominent scientists like Marinescu; but neither was he persuaded by the arguments presented by Vasilescu-Bucium, Stroescu and Făcăoaru.

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Although more pragmatic than both opponents and supporters of eugenic sterilization, Marinescu did not specify which category of individuals would be subjected to voluntary sterilization, much less the legal and medical reasons required.

At about the same time, however, eugenic discourse in Romania underwent significant changes, largely under the influence of the radicalization of the political landscape. Conceptually, the discussion on eugenic sterilization was also drifting towards nationalist manipulations of ethnic aggressiveness, as ideas of national biology and racial protectionism were increasingly voiced by Romanian eugenicists.

The Biology of Race The theme of national regeneration appealed particularly to Banu. Other eugenicists, most notably Manliu and Făcăoaru, were also influenced by racial hygienic ideas, but Banu was consistent dating wwii casti creating a corpus of writings in which eugenics and race were deeply connected. Segregation and sterilization overlapped slightly, as both addressed the same categories of degenerates and anti-socials, namely those considered to be feeble-minded, psychopaths, epileptics, but also criminals and alcoholics.

The foundation of Banu's eugenic philosophy lay in the suggestion that hygienic values and racial improvement were closely linked.

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Closely associated with this eugenic quest for comprehensive solutions to social problems were debates on authoritarian projects of national renewal, especially after the territorial losses of As in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, various forms of radical biopolitics emerged in Romania that endorsed the idea of a totalitarian state as the epitome of Romanian ethnic supremacy.

And like racial hygienists elsewhere, Romanian eugenicists adopted and championed principles of ethnic re-engineering and social segregation. Although many eugenicists opposed marriages between Romanians and other ethnic minorities especially in the Banat and Transylvania none of them argued for the sterilization of the Jews, the Hungarians or the Germans.

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His argument rested almost exclusively on a racial representation of their social and ethnic functions. Gheorghe Făcăoaru, Iordache's brother, suggested, for instance, that: Nomadic and semi-nomadic Gypsies be interned in camps. There their clothes will be changed; they will be shaved, receive a haircut and sterilized.

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To cover the costs of their maintenance, they should do forced labour. We will be rid of them from the first generation. Their place will be taken by national elements, capable of disciplined and creative work.

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Sedentary Gypsies will be sterilized at home, so that within a generation the place will be cleansed of them. There is an easy solution to this: evil must be cut out at the roots and not cultivated. The sterilization of certain categories of individuals must not be conceived stupidly as a violation of human dignity but as a tribute to beauty, morality, and perfection. Otherwise, such efforts are useless because they do not lessen people's misfortune but intensify it by extending it to those who could have a creative and liberating life instead of one of servitude to dysgenic individuals and miserable degenerates.

This idea resonated perfectly with Manliu's call for the Orthodox Church's involvement in biological projects of national protectionism.

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  3. Introduction Among various programmes of biological engineering developed in the twentieth century eugenic sterilization is one of the most notorious.
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Eugenics thus performed different and contradictory functions simultaneously. Mihai Antonescu, the deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs between andis the second example.

Whether eugenic nationalism or military strategies claimed precedence in Antonescu's endorsement of the Holocaust is, ultimately, of secondary importance, as both were infused with the same biological logic, mandating the elimination of those deemed different and inferior.

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Conclusions Reminiscing about his attempts to educate the Romanian public in the tenets of degeneration, eugenics, and sterilization, the gynaecologist Constantin Andronescu remarked sternly in that, in contrast to other European states and the United States, eugenic sterilization had still not been introduced in Romania, and he hoped that this impediment to the racial improvement of the nation would soon be removed.

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