Its growth in intensity and duration allowed the protesters in University Square to become a symbol not only of the struggle against neo-communism but also of early Romanian democratization. The public sphere: Action, emancipation and dissent The public sphere - and therefore our whole living together - is structured through various forms of Handlungen. To put the legitimacy of a narrative into question examines the notion of actions at an earlier stage; it is no longer the substance of the action that is essential for its perception, but the modality in which it is narrated that is the examination of that which leads to and allows its narration. According to the authors, contentious politics involves widespread - and potentially transgressive - social mobilization. Jane a lucrat la Williams la începutul anilor '90, unde a început în Creative Services la Sierra, în cele din urmă scriind și proiectând hituri precum Kings Quest VI , seria Gabriel Knight și multe altele. Despre producția posibilităţilor.

Handlung are sensuri apropiate de ficţiune şi naraţiune, adică înseamnă ceva ce s-a întîmplat şi ceva ce a fost relatat ulterior.

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Definiţia lucrului se bazează pe ideile prezentate de Bruno Latour în eseul De la Realpolitik la Dingpolitik v. E nedrept faţă de ele, nedrept faţă de ştiinţă, nedrept faţă de obiectivitate, nedrept faţă de experienţă. Ele sînt mult mai interesante, mai diversificate, mai incerte, mai complicate, mai cuprinzătoare, mai eterogene, mai riscante, mai istorice, mai locale, mai materiale şi mai relaţionale decît în versiunea jalnică oferită de atîta vreme de filosofi.

Pietrele nu există doar pentru a le trage şuturi şi nici băncile doar pentru a le zgîlţîi. Pentru ediţia germană a Condiţiei umane Hannah Arendt a tradus acţiune fie prin Handeln, fie prin Handeln. Am exagera dacă am lua în calcul ideile lui Blumenberg in extenso, dar concisul său text Prospect for a Theory of Nonceptuality în Hans Blumenberg, Shipwreck with Spectator, Cambridge, ne oferă o imagine clară asupra bunei funcţionări a feedback-ului dintre structurile narative şi lume.

Vorbind cu Jacques Rancière, am ajuns la concluzia că dezeri de dating online sînt momentele în care survine politica.

Rancière vorbeşte despre la part de sans-part, ce devine vizibilă în respectivele manifestări politice, ele fiind de fapt o nouă distribuire a perceptibilului, o nouă ordine a unor regimuri diferite.

Vezi Jacques Rancière, La Mésentente. Chris Marker, în volumul de faţă, p Cf. Pentru o analiză mai amănunţită a acestui raport, vezi textul lui Ludger Schwarte, Arhitectură performativă dating vintage jensen vorbitori cum se constituie o scenă pentru acţiunea politică, în volumul de faţă, p Hannah Arendt, op.

Nu doresc să pierd mult timp cu evenimente istorice, ci voi evidenţia doar una din diferenţele majore existente în Evul Mediu faţă de alte oraşe europene: absenţa unui zid de apărare al cetăţii. Lăsînd la o parte eventualele consecinţe militare, această structură neobişnuită mai are şi astăzi un anumit impact. Neexistînd un zid al cetăţii, este imposibil să stabileşti graniţele oraşului, fapt ce creează dating vintage jensen vorbitori concepţie relativ difuză asupra existenţei sale în spaţiu.

Trebuie spus aici că sus-pomenita concepţie nu e în nici un caz nouă. Rădăcinile ei pot fi descoperite în modernitate, dacă ne gîndim la acea unité d habitation a lui Le Corbusier şi, mai tîrziu dar tot înainte de Ceauşescula proiectele celor din Team Ten. Srdjan Jovanović Weiss numeşte respectivele structuri şi transformări turbo-arhitectură, pornind de la un gen de muzică popular, turbo-folk, un amestec foarte rapid şi eclectic de folclor tradiţional est-european, muzică pop occidentală, sonorităţi techno şi rock.

Analysis of this incident sheds light on the long-term consequences political protests can have when they translate into routine politics. More specifically, such an analysis enriches the emerging literature on how social movements matter by underlining the lasting impact of the University Square Phenomenon on Romania s party system and political culture.

Drawing in part on the theoretical framework presented in Doug McAdam, Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly s Dynamics of Contention, the analysis of the University Square focuses on two major processes: identity formation and contentious repertoires.

This examination shows that the political identity gained during the University Square Phenomenon and the repertoire for political protest it generated played a [23] 14 decisive role in its aftermath and the naissance of a democratic civil society in Romania.

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Introduction 1 In contrast with other Eastern European countries, Romania witnessed a violent exit from communist dictatorship. More than 1, people were killed in the December Revolution and, in the first half ofmany opposed the participation of a neo-communist elite in the first democratic elections in more than five decades.

It was at this moment that a crucial yet understudied episode of political contention took place: the University Square Phenomenon. This episode constituted an attempt to liquidate Romania s communist legacy and move towards a genuinely democratic order. The protest was sparked by a meeting organized on April 22,dating vintage jensen vorbitori Bucharest s University Square, marking exactly four months after the Revolution.

The intention of this protest was to adopt legal measures preventing corrupt former elites from running for office and from holding public functions. A direct corollary of this demand was the deterring of the Front for National Salvation FNS - a self-proclaimed provisional government with strong links to the former Communist Party - from running in the May election.

Large-scale discontent and fear of the FNS felt especially by intellectuals contributed to the rapid transformation of this protest episode. Its growth in intensity and duration allowed the protesters in University Square to become a symbol not only of the struggle against neo-communism but also of early Romanian democratization.

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The University Square Phenomenon gave rise to long-term, ongoing political outcomes in post Romania. For example, it contributed, albeit indirectly, to the victory of the Democratic Convention of Romania DCR in the election and it generated a repertoire of contention that can now stand on its own. Today, the University Square Phenomenon symbolizes an episode of contentious politics that acted as a catalyzing force for the Romanian opposition, helping it reorganize itself and eventually win the election.

From this perspective, the University Square Phenomenon points to a major theoretical question present in the current political sociology literature: how do social movements matter?

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Although crucial, this question has received relatively dating vintage jensen vorbitori systematic attention in the relevant social science literature Giugni et al. In order to explore this question while reconstructing the development and the aftermath of a major yet understudied contentious episode, the following article analyses the role of identity formation and contentious repertoires in the different phases of the University Square Phenomenon before exploring its longterm consequences on contemporary Romanian politics and society.

The discussion about the contentious episode itself focuses on these two processes, i. This approach is derived in large part from Dynamics of Contention, and it has the added benefit of recreating the original dynamic context in which the identity of the University Square Phenomenon emerged as well as the repertoire of contention it made available for adaptation in subsequent protest years.

This article concludes with a discussion about the broad social and political implications of the University Square Phenomenon through an exploration of the link between this episode, democratization, and potential revolutionary trajectories in the early s. How Contentious Episodes Can Matter McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly s Dynamics of Contention has been described as the most ambitious, and arguably the most important, book on social movements and related phenomena written in the past two decades Tindall ; Mische ; Peterson et al.

The main objective of this book is to provide scholars with new insights into various forms of contentious politics. According to the authors, contentious politics involves widespread - and potentially transgressive - social mobilization. Contentious politics is different from routine politics, which gravitates around wellestablished bureaucratic, political, and electoral rules. Dynamics of Contention proceeds to stress the similarities that exist within a wide range of contentious episodes and to focus dating vintage jensen vorbitori the parallels that exist among them.

The present article takes a similar approach, countering the criticism of Dynamics of Contention that it cannot be employed in further studies because, in the absence of a deductive structure it is practically impossible to judge datând clienții dvs theoretical claims make logical sense, and which do not.

Furthermore, it is difficult to build and extend theory Tindall, Instead, the current analysis shows the helpfulness of the authors approach to understanding the University Square episode of contention, which falls outside the scope of grand, overarching theoretical models for revolutions and for democratization, although it does exhibit elements of both. Two issues discussed in Dynamics of Contention will be at the center of this study: identity formation and contentious repertoires.

These issues have been selected among the list of mechanisms and processes discussed in this book because they are especially central for emphasizing the long-term impact of the University Square Phenomenon on Romanian politics and society.

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The most radical example of identity formation comes from the French Revolution and the affirmation that the source of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation, which all modern republics have.

As the French Revolution also illustrates, identity, which emerges from a social movement, is not a constant but rather the result of an interactive process McAdam et al. This process is related to a number of causal mechanisms important for this study: category formation, object shift, and certification.

First, actors frequently link previously unrelated social sites generating new boundaries and connections among political actors, McAdam et al.

In turn, the formation of such categories has a major role to play in the consolidation of new political identities. Second, the actions that take dating vintage jensen vorbitori following the gen- [24] [25] 15 esis of a new political identity can generate an object shift : a displacement of the object of social and political claims that affects the original repertoire of contention.

Finally, the certification of actors by external authorities such as foreign states and international organisations is the third recurring mechanism of identity formation. The lack - or the withdrawal - of external recognition can undermine the legitimacy as well as the mobilising capacity of social and political actors involved in episodes of contention McAdam et al. This brief discussion of the three identity-transforming mechanisms shows that collective identities change during mobilisation processes, sometimes in a sudden manner, and that identity formation also involves the appropriation of existing identities.

In addition, following a logic described by Benedict Andersonit involves a selective memory and interpretation of the past in order to create an image of cohesiveness amongst participants.

Finally, identities created during such episodes later impact routine politics: creation, transformation, and extinction of actors, identities, and forms of action in the course of contention alter the array of actors, identities, and actions that appear in routine politics and further contention once the particular episode of contention has ended McAdam et al. And, while an ideology or an economic grievance can fuel the creation of a new political identity such as the proletariat s or the British labour strikes, it does not have to.

As the analysis of the University Square Phenomenon shows, protesters can also be fuelled by an inherent notion of justice.

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The University Square Phenomenon sprang from the realisation that the Romanian Communist totalitarian regime was unjust and that the government was not committed to uprooting its vestiges but rather had demonstrated that it would continue on a similar path. The process of identity formation is aided by repertoires of contention, which imply that social and political mobilization involves a set of symbols and codified rituals.

Although their impact is variable in scope, these symbols can become a major component of identity construction processes. This is true largely because repertoires of contention are embedded in historical memory.

For example, Hannah Arendt writes on the topic of the dating vintage jensen vorbitori of the revolution that there is nothing that could compensate for its failure or prevent it from becoming final, except memory and recollection. And since the storehouse of memory is kept and watched over by the poets, whose business it is to find and make words we live by Thus, according to Arendt, the preservation through culture of a revolutionary repertoire can provide a political body with the necessary resources to mobilise resistance against the onset of tyrannical rule.

In the study of social movements the concept of repertoire has been widely discussed e. TarrowTilly Yet, Dynamics of Contention gives an additional dynamic meaning to this idea, which could wrongly suggest a stable set of tools and symbols that seldom evolve over time. In response to their circumstances, social and political actors rework known routines and symbols available to them.

Contentious repertoires feature routines that are modified over and over again. Furthermore, in order to reinforce the interactive aspect of repertoire, the authors define the concept of contentious repertoires as limited ensembles of mutual claim-making routines available to particular pairs of identities McAdam et al. Actors borrow a theatrical metaphor - repertoire - to convey the idea that participants in public claim-making adopt scripts they have performed before McAdam et al.

Similar to identity formation, appropriation and interaction are also central to the working and reworking of contentious repertoires.

Our analysis stresses this logic through the study of the slogans, songs, and general claims put forward in the context of the University Square Phenomenon as well as the manner in which the actual University Square location continued to remain a site for subsequent minor protests.

Beyond the study of identity formation and contentious repertoires, the following empirical section ends with a discussion about democratization and revolutionary trajectories as discussed in Dynamics dating vintage jensen vorbitori Contention.

Although revolutionary trajectories seemed to materialize during the development of the University Square Phenomenon, they were never converted into a revolution.

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Yet, the absence of an overarching theoretical model ought not to prevent the study of such episodes but rather reinforce the search for mechanisms that appear variously combined in all This search becomes particularly important when, as in the case of University Square, an episode of contention not only fuels the creation of civil society but also the formation of a new political party and its subsequent electoral victory.

This discussion about the impact of the University Square Phenomenon leads to the issue of how social movements [and contentious episodes] matter. Despite recent attempts to explore such issues Amenta ; Amenta and Caren ; Giugnione can still argue that the study of the consequences of social movements is one of the most neglected topics in the literature.

The most realistic, long-term impact of social movements is the conversion of grievances previously articulated in a setting of contention into routine politics. This transformation into routine politics is usually carried out by the reorganization of protesters into civil society organizations, which continue the protestors struggle from within the system.

An illustration of this process is provided by American feminist groups, which increased in number from 75 in to inand which established their dating vintage jensen vorbitori in Washington, D. Yet, as the current analysis of the University Square Phenomenon shows, social movements can surpass other civil [26] [27] 16 society organizations as they transform themselves into political parties and eventually compania de meci elections.

Furthermore, social movements can affect the political culture of the country in which they operate. In the case of the University Square Phenomenon, this translates into the emergence of powerful anti-communist symbols that are still present in today s Romanian political culture.

These findings about the University Square Phenomenon are especially interesting because they move the analysis beyond the traditional focus on policy outcomes present in the literature to the lasting consequences of social movements and contentious episodes e. Amenta and Caren Understanding the University Square Phenomenon Far from presenting a detailed reconstruction of the University Square Phenomenon, the following sections focus on the theoretical elements discussed above.

The objective here is to shed light on identity formation and contentious repertoires while underlining the broad social and political impact of this crucial contentious episode in the mirror of the routinization of politics that took place after the episode ended with the miners violent intervention. The chronological structure of the second part reflects the four phases of the University Square Phenomenon: organization, development, aftermath, and consolidation.

Organization: Identity Formation and Repertoires in University Square Though the University Square Phenomenon forms an episode of contentious politics on its own, it cannot be approached without a brief overview of the historical and political events leading up to that point. After 45 years of communist rule, the population of Timişoara initiated the Romanian Revolution, which by December 22,had spread to other cities, particularly Bucharest Milin Unlike other Eastern European movements where the overthrow of former communist regimes was peaceful, the Romanian Revolution claimed 1, deaths.

In the dating vintage jensen vorbitori, the courts, which should have brought those responsible for the December massacre and for the 45 years of communist rule to trial, failed to do so and thus, the crimes of December and those of the Communist past remained a running sore on the Romanian body politic Siani- Davies Added to this was Dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu s escape, immediately after which the Front for National Salvation FNS formed and made its first public appearance on national television.

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The most prominent spokesman of the FNS was Ion Iliescu, a former high official of the Romanian Communist Party at the time dating vintage jensen vorbitori unknown to the general public, who later became president of the country Deletant ; Osmani Despite the FNS s efforts to deny its connection with the previous Communist Party, it soon became obvious to many Romanians that the party s anti-communism was of a more recent vintage Călinescu and Tismăneanu ; Hickman 3.

Furthermore, FNS s refusal to outlaw the Romanian Communist Party and the first arrival of miners on January 29 - followed by another group on February 18 - to restore order in Bucharest generated doubts amongst many Romanian intellectuals about the success of the Revolution Bellu and Badin, To this day the identities of the terrorists remain unknown, under whose orders they acted, how many people died because of their actions, and why they vanished without a trace only a few days later Hickman ; Siani-Davis These so-called terrorists were evoked in the media particularly on television during those days, and they brought with them the old Hobbesian realization that security is more important than freedom.

Soon afterwards, in Marchethnic tensions escalated into violence in Târgu-Mureş, a Transylvanian city where ethnic Hungarians form the majority. The President s reaction to this conflict raised doubts about Iliescu s commitment to minority rights.

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T]he President s manipulation of state media [particularly the only TV station in existence at the time] before the election of May raised further doubts about his democratic credentials Light and Phinnemore 2. In response to Iliescu, worker and student association members held a gathering on March 11,in Timişoara to dating vintage jensen vorbitori the Proclamation of Timişoara Călinescu and Tismăneanu The Proclamation, written mainly by George Şerban and published by the Timişoara Society Mungiu stated: For the victory of the Revolution, in Timişoara, together with the Romanians, Hungarians, Germans, Serbs and members of other ethnic groups died, who for centuries lived peacefully in our city.

We] want to live in a country where tolerance and mutual respect are the only principles that will rule the future Europe Home Proclamation of Timişoara. The same Proclamation also asserts: The Revolution was from its first hours, not only anti-ceauşescu but also, categorically, anti-communist. Of paramount importance was the eighth point in the Proclamation of Timişoara, which proposes: an electoral law that forbids former communist activists and former Securitate officers for the first three consecutive elections from standing for election on any electoral list These circumstances prepared the ground for the University Square Phenomenon.

Thus, on April 22 the National Peasant Party NPPa newly [28] [29] 17 formed political party claiming continuity, via its leaders Corneliu Coposu and Ion Diaconecu, with the pre-war National Peasant Party, organized a meeting of protest with the intention of deterring Iliescu telugu dating other former communist leaders from running in the May 20 election Osmani 3.

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În a fost prima femeie care a programat și proiectat un joc video, 3D Tic-Tac-Toe pentru Atari Cu industria în șovăi, Shaw a luat o pauză de a face jocuri, dar sa întors în pentru a supraveghea producția River Raid IIpiesa ei finală de lebădă în lumea consolelor.

Shaw și soțul ei, Ralph Merkle, specialist în domeniul criptografiei și nanotehnologiei, sunt pensionați. Dona Bailey: Prima femeie care a proiectat un joc arcade Wikimedia Commons Hotărâtă să intre în bizul jocului, Dona Bailey a acceptat o poziție ca inginer la Atari în Carol Shaw plecase deja la Activision, astfel că Bailey era singura designer feminin de jocuri la companie.

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Anne Westfall: programator și co-fondator al asociaților de cădere liberă Packshot © Electronic Arts Inc. Înainte ca Anne Westfall să înceapă să lucreze în jocuri, ea a fost un programator strălucit care a creat primul program bazat pe microcomputere pentru a structura subdiviziuni. Printre jocurile lor co-proiectate de Freeman și programate de Westfall a fost titlul de computer lovit Archoncare la acea vreme era cel mai mare vânzător al EA.

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